Tree and fruit characterization of peach genotypes grown under Ardabil and East Azarbaijan environmental conditions in Iran


Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of East Azarbaijan Province, Tabriz, Iran.


Peach genotypes showing notable fruit and tree traits were selected in Ardabil and East Azarbaijan Provinces of Iran. Genotypes were grafted on seed rootstocks and cultured with 4×4 m spacing. Traits such as tree growth habit, flowering, maturity, morphological and qualitative fruit characteristics were described in 15 peach genotypes using IBPGR peach descriptors during the 2005-2007 seasons. Variation was found within genotypes for traits such as tree growth habit, bloom and harvest date, yield, fruit weight, soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. Some genotypes had upright or spreading growth habit. Tree vigor was intermediate to strong with green leaf color. Flowering occurred early to late in three years with 10 to 13 days of flowering period. Harvest time varied from early to extremely late (mid-June to late October). Genotypes showed a range of 120±1 g to 275±1 g for fruit weight, 22 to 114 kg for yield per tree, 11.60 to 16.40 °Brix for SSC, 0.54±0.01 to 0.92±0.02% for TA and ripening index from 1.73 to 2.02. Results showed 6 clingstone and 9 freestone genotypes with white and white-greenish to yellow flesh color. Genotypes were grouped into four clusters based on quality traits. High correlation was found between fruit quality traits using principal component analysis. These relationships may help to select a set of genotypes with better fruit quality. Selected genotypes showed good adaptability in Ardabil and East Azarbaijan Provinces and may be released as superior varieties for use in breeding programs.